Notes and References

All Material, Unless Otherwise Noted, Copyright Donald Lockwood 2007- 2009

Works Mentioned


Chungyung(Zhongyong) Most often rendered as The Doctrine of the Mean the Chungyung is really a treatise on the path of the Chun-tzu(junzi) or “exemplary person” (The “superior man” is a common rendering, but has negative connotations, see Chun-tzu in the Glossary for a discussion) it is very short, but one of the most profound works in world literature, see Reading List One on the Recommended Reading page for the preferred translation, which also includes a translation of the Ta Hsüeh.



Li Ching


Nei-yeh The nei yeh has only recently drawn attention in the West though it is part of a collection of short works the Kuan-tzu(Guanzi) which contains material of great antiquity.  The Nei-yeh itself is one of four texts called the hsin shu(xinshu) or ‘Art of Mind’ texts which deal with mental cultivation.  Translations of the Nei-yeh are available in Harold Roth’s Original Tao; Inward Training and in Allyn Ricketts translations of the the Kuan-tzu 1965 and his complete Guanzi 1985 and 1998, which also include the other ‘Art of Mind’ texts.  While Roth is at great pains to minimize any Confucian connection with the Nei-yeh even a superficial reading of the Mencius will reveal several more than the one which he mentions and marginalizes.  Arthur Waley in the introduction to his translation of the Tao Te Ching, The Way and Its Power lists several more connections and the position of Inner Sage Tao is that the work is a composite of several schools which either in its present form, or in the form of some of its components, had a significant influence on Taoism and at least on the Mencian branch of Confucianism, and as Graham maintains, it may go back to a period before any major split between Confucianism and Taoism (see Graham, Disputers of the Tao, p. 100).

Ta Hsüeh(Da xue) Usually referred to as The Great Learning the Ta Hsüeh is a guide to self-cultivation as it spreads out from the self into the farthest reaches of society.  The Ta Hsüeh teaches one to become a conscious agent of Harmony and complements the Chungyung which sets out the cosmological background, by providing it application to human society.  Its plan of extended self cultivation echoes Chapter 54 of the Tao Te Ching and is the inspiration for the ending of the Bright Virtue Affirmation (see The Reading Room, ‘Introduction to the Principle Affirmations of Inner Sage Tao’) of Inner Sage Tao

Tao Te Ching






Humanity and Self-cultivation

On the Mysteries

Original Tao: Inward Training Harold Roth’s Translation of the Hsin Shu text Nei Yeh from the Kuan-Tzu


Disputers of the Tao

Five Lost Classics



OTIT Original Tao: Inward Training

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